CBSE Class 11 Physical Education 
                          Chapter 3:Yoga

1) Define yoga.
Ans. Unification of jivatma with parmatma is called yoga.
2) What is Dhayana?
Ans. Complete concentration of chitta (Mana) is called Dhiyana.
3) How is BMI measured?
Ans. Weight in Kg/(Height in Mtr)2
4) Name the various elements of yoga.
Ans. Yama, Niyama, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana Dhyan, Samadhi etc.
5) Classify different types of Pranayama
Ans.1. Purka
2. Rechaka
3. Kumbhaka

6) What is Yama?
Ans. It is the first element of ‘Astanga yaga.’ Through the practice of yama one can abstain from stealing, lying, cheating, killing and other exploitative behaviour, various elements like ahimsa, satya, Astaya, Brahmacharya and Aparigraha etc. are excluded in this.
7) What do you mean by yoga sutra?
Ans. Patanjali gave us the present literary form of yoga in ‘yoga sutra’ in approximately 147 BC.
8) Outline any two importance of yoga?
Ans.1. It controls the Kaph, Vaat and pitt and increase physical as well as mental purity.
2. It increases the immunity power of the body which help in preventing diabetes, hypertension, heart disease etc.
9) Describe the benefits of pranayama.
Ans.1. Pranayama is as necessary for the mental purity as bathing is necessary for physical purity. Yogic kriyas such as neti, dhanti, kapalbhati etc. controls the kaph, vaat an pitt.
2. Continuous performance of mayurasans and other yogic kriyas increases facial beauty and makes the skin glow.
3. Makarasana, Savasana, Salabhasana help in reducing stress and people feel happy.
10) Write a short note on dhayana and Samadhi.
Ans. Dhayana:
It refers to meditation or a sense of radical self-awareness. It is a stage prior to Samadhi. Dhayana is part of life. In fact, complete concentration of mind is called dhayana.
In Samadhi the Atma gets united with the paramatma. Samadhi state is attained when self- awareness disappears completely too, feel divine pleasure after attaining the state of Samadhi. One experiences the virtual truth.
11) Suggest any three exercise dependent rimed and any three diet dependent remedies.
Ans. Exercise Dependent Remedies:
1. Regular Physical Exercise:
Obesity can be controlled by practicing various aerobic exercises, jogging, cycling, dance etc. for at least 60 minutes every day.
2. Yogic Exercises:
Obesity can be reduced by practicing various types of asanas and other yogic exercise.
3. Resistance Exercises:
These exercises strengthen tendons and ligaments. While performing such exercise one must fix the number of repetition rather then amount of weight lifted. These are considered safe and good for wealth.
Diet Dependent Remedies:
1. Avoid fatty foods:
Fats provide maximum calories to the body, extra fats are stored in the body. In order remain slim one must avoid fatty foods.
2. Avoid junk and fast food:
Fast food like pizza, burger, patties, samosa, chole bhature, pastry, cookies etc. Contain very high calorific value. Therefore, such foods may be avoided.
3. Change in life style:
For short distance travel, we must walk more on foot instead of using rickshaw, scooter, car etc. We should use stairs in place of lifts and do more up and down in our houses.
12) Write any three steps for prevention/management of back pain.
Ans.1. Proper posture while sitting in important to avoid stress on back muscle. It helps in avoiding back pain.
2. Many a times, joints of the spinal chord get disjointed while lifting heavy objects resulting in pain. At times, the lower portion of the body becomes numb, therefore one should be very careful while lifting things.
3. Deposition of unnecessary fat in the body causes obesity, which results in putting extra pressure on spinal chord and lower back. It causes back pain, so we should take appropriate diet with less fat and keep aware the obesity.
13) If the weight of a person is 80 Kg and height is 1.75 meter, calculate him BMI.
Ans. Weight of the body = 80 Kg and Height = 1.75 M
BMI = weight of the body/(heights in meter)2
        = 80/(1.75)2
        =26.12 Kg/m2
14) Classify the Asanas
Ans.1. Dhayanatmak Asana (Meditative Asana): Padmasana, Siddhasana, Swastikasana, Vajrasana, Gomukhasana etc. These asanas should be practiced in peaceful altnospire. It increase the concentration power.
2. Relaxative Asana: Shashankasana, Savasana, Makar asana etc. These asanas help in relaxation of physical and mental fatique. They provide relaxation to our body and mind.
3. Corrective asana: Shirsasana, Sarvang asana, Shalabh asana, Bhujung asana, Mayur asana, Paschimotanasanaetc.
These are very helpful in physical development. They provide efficiency to Pranayama, Pratiyahara and dharna.
15) “Yoga is our cultural Hevitage.” Explain this statement.
Ans. Yoga was born out of the Thought process of thousands of years. Indians believe in cycle of birth and death and in principle of re-birth. They were motivated to practice Yoga in order to attain Moksha. The History of yoga in as follows:
1. Pre-vedie Period: Many status in yoga mudra was found in the excavation of Harappa. It reveals that yoga was practiced during Indus Valley Civilisation which is 3000 years old.
2. Vedic-period: In Rigveda, the use of word ‘yunjate’ suggests an idea of yoga for control over senses.
3. Upanishad Period: The mention of yoga in found in puranas and upanishads also.
4. Epic-period: Ramayana and Mahabarata are important source of information about the yogic practices of that era. Bhagwat Gita emphasized on Bharti yoga and karma yoga Lord Sri Krishna narrated yoga  to Arjuna in Mahabharata, “Skill in actions or efficiency alone is Yoga.”
5. Sutra Period: Patanjali wrote four yoga sutra around 147 B.C. in which he mentioned about 8 parts of yoga.
6. Smriti Period: The Literature of Smriti period shows significant presence of pranayama along with changes in beliefs, worship, ideas, rituals and customs.
7. Medieval Period: In this period two cults were very famous-Natha Cult and Bhakti Cult. Hatha Yoga was also developed during this period.
8. Modern Period: Swami Yogananda, Shri Aurobindo, Raman Maharshi etc. spread yoga outside India. Swami Vivekananda and Baba Ramdev have contributed by spreading yoga all over the world.
16) Describe different elements of yoga:
Ans. Yama is the first element of yoga. It keeps people away from world by troubles.
According to Patanjali, there are five code of conduct of yama. These are:
1.(i) Satya: One must speak the truth. One should never cheat others.
(ii) Ahinsa: One must refrain from causing harm, violence, jealousy, hatered, anger, oppression etc.
(iii) Asatya: One must not steal others money or idea. To Steal from human is to steal from God himself.
(iv) Brahmacharya: One must avoid reading sexual Literature, one must keep ones mind at peace, avoid eating spicy food.
(v) Aparigraha: One should not collect wealth and other items more than required.
2. Niyama: This is related with body and sense. It helps in cleansing of body. There are five Niyamas:
(i) Saucha: Everyday body should be cleaned externally as well as internally.
(ii). Santosh: One should remain content is controlling diseases.
(iii).Tapa: It trains a person to difficulties so that one can move towards the ultimate goal.
(iv). Swadhyana: One must read religions scriptures and vedas with devotion.
(v). Iswara Pr anidhana:It means devoting everything to the God Almighty. We should thank God for the intelligence power, body etc.
3. Asana: It has third position. To keep the body in correct posture is called asana. It enhances agility and flexibility. it makes the bones and muscles strong. It protects us from various diseases. It increases life expectancy. One can work more by consuming less energy.
4. Pranayama: It makes the heart and lungs strong. It reduces the rate of breathing. It keeps away the respiratory diseases.
5. Pratyahara: This is the process of control over inner self. It helps the person to detach from external things and teaches to control over senses.
6. Dharana: One has to concentrate on the mind during dharna. One must concentrate on the central point of forehead, naval or peaceful light at some distance. It leads to samadhi.
7. Dhayana: A sense of radical self-awareness is called dhayana. It is attached to life each and every moment one must concentrate on God without a wavering mind.
8. Samadhi:  Union of Jivatma with Paramatma is called Samadhi. Samadhi state is attained with disappearance. of self-awareness. To control the impulses ofmind is Samadhi. In this state, one experiences the divine happiness.
17) How yoga is beneficial for sports persons? Explain
Ans.1. Yoga improves the concentration power of the player, it enhances the skill, level and performance.
2. Lungs of the player become stronger. Due to inhalation of maximum oxygen, it increases the patience.
3. The joints of the player becomes strong and flexible, which help in learning difficult skills easily.
4. It prevents the player from injury, sprain and strain.
5. It reduces the tension and pressure, resulting in strong will power to learn.
6. It increases the WBC that increases immunity power of the body.
7. It enhances the air tidal capacity, as a result the player does not feel the fatigue due to reduced rate of respiration.
8. The reaction time of the player improves considerably, it increases the efficiency and alertness.
9. It increases the physical as well as internal strength enhancing the skill in games and sport.
18) Discuss the methods of prevention and management of diabetes?
Ans.1. Regular physical exercise: Regular exercise helps in reduction of sugar level in blood and helps in production of insulin in panereas.
2. Avoid oily and fatty food: Our digestive system cannot absorb the fatty food properly due to high level of calorie present in it. It increases fat in the body and people become fatty. Obesity helps in developing diabetes.
3. Maintains healthy weight: We should take proper intake of carbohydrate. BMI should be maintained between 18.5 to 24.9. In case BMI is more than 25 we would eat food with less calories.
4. Get enough sleep: Rest and proper sleep induce energy and activeness. Diabetes increases fatigue in the body. So we must get enough sleep.
5. No Tension: Tension in mind increases sugar level in the body. In order to prevent tension we should remain happy and cheerful.
19) Discuss the causes and management of hypertension.
Ans.  Causes of hypertension:
1. Genetic factor: It is the main cause of high BP. Its genes get transferred from one generation to another generation.
2. Obesity: It is also one of the main causes of high BP. It increases the danger by six fold.
3. Lack of exercise: Continuous lack of physical exercise increases the risk of high BP.
4. Excessive smoking, drug and consumption of alcohol: These things also increase the risk of high BP by weakning the neuro system of the body.
5. Sedentary life style: It makes the body lethargic which develops the risk of high BP.
Management of hypertension:
1. Lifestyle Changes: We should lead active life style. We should keep away from smoking and exercise for 30 minutes daily. The patient of sugar should control sugar level.
2. Control obesity: Obesity increases the risk of high BP. Obesity should be controlled by taking light food and regular exercise.
3. Meditate: It relaxes the mind and keeps us calm, thus emotions can be controlled.
4. Develop patience : Develops you  patience  and  tolerance  towards aggression
5. Take a break : Take a break and perform some other work to change emotion.

YOGA  YOGA Reviewed by Rock on July 02, 2019 Rating: 5

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